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Cervical / Uterine
Both cervical and uterine cancer begin in different parts of the uterus. Uterine cancer begins in the cells of the endometrium and is sometimes referred to as endometrial cancer. There are two types of endometrial cancer. Type 1 carcinoma usually presents at a younger age, defects in the DNA mismatch repair and mutations in PTEN, K-ras, and beta-catenin. There is also frequent expression of the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Cervical cancer originates in the thin, flat cells of the cervix. The human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes 16/18/33/42 is associated wtih this cancer, anal , penile , head , and neck cancer. Other cellular genes play a role in the carcinogenesis and aggressiveness of cervical tumors suchas the RAS gene and amplification in EGFR and ERB2.